Self-Driving Car Technology: How Do Self-Driving Cars Work?

  • Updated on September 6, 2021
  • General

The progress in the field of autonomous cars is quite noticeable over the last decade. Many companies like Uber and Waymo are also participating in this race to bring self-driving cars in the future that function properly without humans behind the steering wheels. Still, it is not safe to use these cars on the roads because there are still some things that need to get finished. 

Autonomous cars have made significant progress and strides in the past few years. Recently, trucks in the USA have completed a trip without any issue at all. Tesla is in the spotlight as far as self-driving technology is involved. They have also invented the main idea and structure of autonomous cars. 

In this blog, we will discuss the following faqs about self-driving car technology:

  • What are self-driving cars?
  • How self-driving cars work?
  • What are the levels of self-driving cars?

What are Self-Driving Cars?

Self-driving cars, also called autonomous cars, don’t need human drivers to take control of a vehicle. They used different types of sensors and software that help self-driving cars to navigate and function properly. It uses the concepts of machine learning and artificial intelligence to check the weather, road conditions, the distance between cars on the road, traffic signals, and much more.

Many of us associate autonomous cars with Artificial intelligence, but the reality is that many automobiles have achieved a high level of autonomy without even a touch of AI. Features like lane assist, adaptive cruise control, and brake assist are the best examples of that. All these features will also help to take the concept of the autonomous car to another level. 

Moreover, self-driving cars don’t rely on artificial intelligence. Many other concepts like computing and machine learning are also collaborating with this concept to move this concept to another level. Well, again it depends on the sophistication level of deep learning models used for controlling an automobile. 

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How Self-Driving Cars Work?

The autonomous cars work on the 5 following features:

The Computer vision

Many cameras and sensors are used by the autonomous car to check the road. The sensors will be able to sense each and everything on the road including other vehicles. 

Sensor Fusion

In this process, the car combines all the information that is collected from the different sources and acts according to it. 


In this process, AI will figure out the exact position of the car on the road with high accuracy. 

Planning of pathways

In this process, self-driving cars will collect all the information about the surroundings and make the decision about the pathways to follow. 

Vehicle control

Finally, the car will start moving after collecting all the required data and adjusting the gas, brakes, and steerings constantly. 

What are the Levels of Self-Driving Cars?

While the concept of self-driving cars crosses our mind, we might think of the automobiles that drive themselves without human involvement. Well, that’s not the complete story. There are 5 levels of autonomous cars that were set by SAE back in 2014. All these levels depend on the automation level and how much human interaction will be needed. All these levels (0 to 5)represent the full spectrum of autonomous cars. 

These 5 levels are as follows:

  • Level 0: At this level, there is no automation at all. The driver has to control the vehicle completely.
  • Level 1: In level 1, certain vehicle controls are automated, like electronic stability control or automatic braking. Basically, level 1 includes driver assistance.
  • Level 2: The automated system takes control completely at this level. For example Steering, deceleration, and acceleration will be controlled by AI. The human driver will still be responsible to monitor and analyze things.
  • Level 3: In this level, self-driving cars monitor the driving environment. The car will sense when the human driver needs to control the car. Almost 75% of automation is done by this level. 
  • Level 4: This is the highest level attained by the industry until now. The high automation is done by this level and the autonomous cars are responsible to take control of the vehicle for all execution. Yet, it is not effective for different types of driving modes. At this level, cars still lack to perform in rare scenarios.  
  • Level 5: This will be the highest level where the cars will drive themselves completely without human involvement. Humans will just sit as passengers and enjoy their ride while doing nothing at all. 

Final thoughts

The self-driving cars are going to dominate the world very soon with their amazing functionality, features, and safety. In case you are in Dubai and you are looking for a Monthly car Rental, then you should try the best and professional car rental company.


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